Post oak grasshopper. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Grasshoppers Links. Grasshopper has different species with different species name depending on your location. Room #9, Agriculture Bldg. Grasshoppers occur in greatest numbers in lowland tropical forests, semiarid regions, and grasslands. Updated August 01, 2019. that a grasshopper belongs to the genus . genus. Acrididae: grasshopper. Dendrotettix quercus. Rangeland Grasshopper Management. The grasshopper senses touch through organs located in various parts of its body, including antennae and palps on the head, cerci on the abdomen, and receptors on the legs. Acridid grasshopper in the genus Oxya, subfamily Oxyinae, family Acrididae. in other genera) Sudan plague locust, Aiolopus simulatrix; The Senegalese grasshopper (Oedaleus senegalensis) also often displays locust-like behaviour in the Sahel region. In Latin tettigonia means a kind of small cicada, leafhopper ; [5] it is from the Greek τεττιγόνιον tettigonion , the diminutive of the imitative ( onomatopoeic ) τέττιξ, tettix , cicada . ... grasshopper. Genus: Schistocerca (Bird Grasshoppers) Species: americana (American Bird Grasshopper) 1 3. Hints for Identification. An index of insects, spiders, and other arthropods profiled on this site, sorted alphabetically by scientific names. Scott Schell. HOMO refers to. They are often the species of insect that is used to feed 'pet' spiders and other insectivores like reptiles. It is common for humans to eat grasshoppers in places like Asia and Africa where the bigger species of grasshopper are found, and there is a less readily available alternative protein source. Grasshoppers have six jointed legs that are incredibly powerful for such a small creature, as grasshoppers are able to jump extraordinary distances. Grasshoppers are controlled in nature by predators such as birds, frogs, and snakes. Species that produce sound also have auditory (tympanal) organs. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Humans use insecticides and poison baits to control them when they become crop pests. Reduced Agent and Area Treatments (RAATs) wgis. Phoetaliotes nebrascensis. americana is the specific trivial name. Schistocera is the generic name. For completeness of discussion, all of these groups, handled here as four separate orders, are included in this article.…, …first walking legs; those of grasshoppers are on the first segment of the abdomen. Spur-throated Grasshoppers (part of the Short-horned Grasshopper family) are the most common species of grasshopper in all of North America. Big head. On the other hand, in large numbers, they can be somewhat of a nuisance in gardens, chewing on plants grown for food or aesthetics. Black-winged grasshopper. SPUR-THROATED GRASSHOPPERS. The male can produce a buzzing sound by rubbing toothlike ridges on the hind femurs against a raised vein on each closed front wing. It is considered a pest over most of its range. Aulocara elliotti. It is known mostly for the damage that it inflicts to crops in the Midwest states. (Human hearing extends to about 20 kHz.) Phone: (307) 766-2508. Which beetle is also known as the tumblebug and can eat its weight in 24 hours? Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Melanoplus is a large genus of grasshoppers. The second part is the specific epithet or species name. Wyoming Distribution Atlas. The grasshopper eggs can take up to 9 months to hatch as they wait until the weather has warmed before breaking into the outside world. The plague, or migratory, species are called locusts. short-winged; red markings; bluish hind tibia. This results in a non-stop barrage of feeding by the insects and results in complete decimation of a … This species of grasshopper thrives on weeds at the border of and within fields of crops. For example, Dissosteira is the name of the grasshopper genus that contains four species; carolina is the specific epithet of one of the four species. Sort of. But generally they are called caelifera The family name Tettigoniidae is derived from the genus Tettigonia, first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. In some species, the sounds may be as high as 100 kHz. Grasshoppers in the genus Schistocerca, commonly called bird grasshoppers, are also known around the world as the swarming locusts. The grasshopper hears by means of a tympanal organ situated in the first segment of the abdomen, which is attached to the thorax. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The grasshopper has wings meaning it can migrate over long distances when the weather gets too cold. The waterboatman, a heteropteran, is a…, the cicadas, crickets, and some grasshoppers, females normally mate after they have been attracted to a male by vocalizations of the latter, which, in most cases, are species specific. Although most grasshoppers are herbivorous, only a few species are important economically as crop pests. Grasshoppers are insects of the suborder Caelifera within the order Orthoptera, which includes crickets and their allies in the other suborder Ensifera. Although "grasshopper" is sometimes used as a common name for the suborder in general, some sources restrict it to the more "advanced" groups. The two words together, Dissosteira carolina, comprise the scientific name of the Carolina … Species that produce sound also have auditory (tympanal) organs. Those used in this guide were taken from Capinera et al. The short-horned grasshopper (family Acrididae, formerly Locustidae) includes both inoffensive nonmigratory species and the often-destructive, swarming, migratory species known as locust. Fuzzy olive-green grasshopper. Grasshoppers generally are large, with some exceeding 11 cm (4 inches) in length (e.g., Tropidacris of South America). The two words together, Dissosteira carolina, comprise the scientific name of the Carolina grasshopper. Grasshopper Species Fact Sheets Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 912 Species Fact Sheets by Robert E. Pfadt. Key to Wyoming Grasshoppers. Black males grasshopper. kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species. The antennae of the grasshopper are known to be remarkably long and can often be longer than the grasshopper’s body, although the grasshopper’s antennae and the grasshopper’s body are normally about the same size. Due to a lack of agreement among systematic zoologists, questions have arisen concerning the correct scientific name … Grasshopper Scientific Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Orthoptera Family: Caelifera Scientific Name: Caelifera KnowYourInsects.org cannot determine which species it is from the photo. Category: Grasshopper or Cricket Size (Adult; Length): 10mm to 27mm (0.39in to 1.05in) The Orthoptera order contains.... See full answer below. The short-horned grasshopper (family Acrididae, formerly Locustidae) includes both inoffensive nonmigratory species and the often-destructive, swarming, migratory species known as locust. Many grasshoppers produce ultrasonic mating calls (above the range of human hearing). The meadow grasshopper and the cone-headed grasshopper are other examples of members of Acrididae. genus and species. organisms in the same _____ can re produce and they share the most similar charictoristics. When the first baby grasshopper (known as a nymph) hatches out of its egg, it tunnels through the soil and up to the surface, and the remaining grasshopper nymph follow. deckeni (Gerstäcker), A. elgonensis Sjöstedt and A. ruficornis (Fabricius).Acanthacris elgonensis is raised to specific status for the first time.Acanthacris ruficornis is considered as two distinct geographical races: A. r. ruficornis and A. r. citrina (Serville). The group is subdivided into several subfamilies that include slant-faced grasshoppers, stridulating grasshoppers, Band-winged grasshoppers, and some of the better-known locusts. What are the best dogs for city living? Grasshoppers eat grasses, weeds, leaves, shrubs, bark and numerous other species of plants that surround them. nov.,A. Debbie Hadley. Some grasshoppers are adapted to specialized habitats. An index of insects, spiders, and other arthropods profiled on this site, sorted alphabetically by scientific names. The femur region of the upper hind legs is greatly enlarged and contains large muscles that make the legs well adapted for leaping. Grasshoppers in the genus Schistocerca, commonly called bird grasshoppers, are also known around the world as the swarming locusts. Grasshoppers are best known for their ability to jump incredible heights and distances. List of Species Fact Sheets. The meadow grasshopper and the cone-headed grasshopper are other examples of members of Acrididae. In some species, the sounds may be as high as 100 kHz. Migratory grasshopper: Melanoplus sanguinipes: Often the most damaging species to croplands. Good candidates can’t be frequent, loud barkers that drive the neighbors mad. There are 11,000 thousand known species of grasshopper on Earth, that live in grassy areas such as fields and meadows and forest and woodland. Big-headed grasshopper. Melanoplus. For example, Dissosteira is the name of the grasshopper genus that contains four species; carolina is the specific epithet of one of the four species. nov., A. deckeni (Gerstäcker), A. elgonensis Sjöstedt and A. ruficornis (Fabricius). The two back legs of the grasshopper are long and powerful and are just for jumping, where the four front legs of the grasshopper are primarily used to hold onto prey and to help it to walk. Anonymous. Let’s […] Read More, David Burnie, Dorling Kindersley (2011) Animal, The Definitive Visual Guide To The World's Wildlife, Tom Jackson, Lorenz Books (2007) The World Encyclopedia Of Animals, David Burnie, Kingfisher (2011) The Kingfisher Animal Encyclopedia, Richard Mackay, University of California Press (2009) The Atlas Of Endangered Species, David Burnie, Dorling Kindersley (2008) Illustrated Encyclopedia Of Animals, Dorling Kindersley (2006) Dorling Kindersley Encyclopedia Of Animals. a scientific name contains 2 parts. Its scientific name is Melanoplus Bivittatus. Common Name: Scientific Name: Comments: Differential grasshopper: Melanoplus differentialis: Often one of the first grasshoppers found moving into gardens and one of the largest in the genus Melanoplus. The female grasshopper lays an egg pod that contains a couple of dozen grasshopper eggs in the late autumn to early winter depending on the area. Field Crickets are a popular food item for many animals. Test what you know about bugs with this quiz. Purple Striped Grasshopper SAPIENS refers to. Which of these insects includes a “slave-maker” that bites the head off the resident queen? spp. …and Caelifera (pygmy sand crickets, grasshoppers, and locusts) are considered to comprise the order Orthoptera. The standard groups in a typical complete classification of species are (the example is for a honey bee, Apis melliferaLinnaeus) There are often additional groups used that are intermediate to the groups listed. They range in colour from green to olive or brown and may have yellow or red markings. The meadow grasshopper and the cone-headed grasshopper are other examples of members of Acrididae. The short-horned grasshopper (family Acrididae, formerly Locustidae) includes both inoffensive nonmigratory species and the often-destructive, swarming, migratory species known as locust. Melanoplus, but the writer is not sure about the species. species. means that the writer is referring to two or more species in this genus. 1 decade ago. ID TOOLS - Species Fact Sheets. The Spur-throated Grasshopper are yellow, orange, or green with additional shades of brown or red. Acanthacris elgonensis is raised to specific status for the first time. The genus for the two striped grasshopper is Melanoplus. (2004) and Salsbury and White (2000). In certain parts of the world, grasshoppers are eaten as food. They may be placed in the infraorder Acrididea and have been referred-to as "short-horned grasshoppers" in older texts to distinguish them from the also-obsolete term "long-horned grasshoppers" (now bush-crickets or katydids) with their much longer antennae. Grasshopper has different species with different species name depending on your location. Campylacantha olivacea. KnowYourInsects.org cannot determine which species it is from the photo. For information on any of the 60 species listed below, just click on the desired name. The family name Tettigoniidae is derived from the genus Tettigonia, first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. A common name is spur-throat grasshoppers (also "spurthroat" or "spur-throated grasshoppers"), but this more typically refers to members of the related subfamily Catantopinae. Acridid grasshopper in the genus Oxya, subfamily Oxyinae, family Acrididae. The genus Acanthacris Uvarov is revised and four species are recognized: A. aithioptera sp. Grasshoppers belong to the suborder Caelifera. Like all insects, all species of grasshopper have a three-part body that is made up of the grasshopper’s head, it’s thorax and the abdomen. The grasshopper is also a stable food source for many predators around the world including reptiles, insects, small mammals and birds. Hesperotettix speciosus. In crickets and katydids, these "ears" are on the tibia of the front legs. They are the typical large grasshoppers (and in some cases migratory " locusts ") in North America. The grasshopper only remains in this stage (young and adult) for a few months before it dies meaning that most grasshopper individuals spend the majority of their lives inside an egg. Most grasshopper individuals grow to about 2 inches long although larger grasshoppers are found on a fairly regular basis that grow to more than 5 inches in length. Many grasshoppers produce ultrasonic mating calls (above the range of human hearing). Scientific Name: Melanoplus bivittatus Category: Grasshopper or Cricket Size (Adult; Length): 30mm to 55mm (1.17in to 2.15in) Trimerotropis melanoptera. The different levels of groups are named by the convention of taxonomists (scientists who study classifications). All species of grasshopper are classified in the taxonomic order Orthoptera and specifically the suborder Caelifera. In crickets and katydids, these "ears" are on the tibia of the front legs. The migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) is the most widespread locust species, and the only species in the genus Locusta.It occurs throughout Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand.It used to be common in Europe but has now become rare there. Scientific Name: Melanoplus ponderosus Category: Grasshopper or Cricket Size (Adult; Length): 25mm to 45mm (0.98in to 1.76in) Grasshoppers also have six legs, two pairs of wings, and two antennae. (Human hearing extends to about 20 kHz.) Each kingdom is then further divided into increasingly smaller groups based on similarities. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/animal/grasshopper-insect, Illinois College of Aces - Department of Crop Sciences - Extension and Outreach - Grasshopper, BioKIDS - Kids' Inquiry of Diverse Species - Grasshopper, grasshopper - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), grasshopper - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). But generally they are called caelifera Bivittatus is the species. put following names in order. Most grasshoppers that you find in your garden, along the side of the road, or perhaps while walking through a summer meadow belong to the family Acrididae. Barren land grasshopper. GRASSHOPPER NAMES: COMMON, SCIENTIFIC; Common Name: Scientific Name: Barber pole grasshopper Barren land grasshopper Black-winged grasshopper Big head Big-headed grasshopper Black males grasshopper Boopee Broad-banded grasshopper Brown-spotted range grasshopper Carolina grasshopper Clear-winged grasshopper Club-horned grasshopper Crackling forest grasshopper Crenulated grasshopper … The South American grasshoppers of Pauliniidae spend most of their lives on floating vegetation and actively swim and lay eggs on underwater aquatic plants. Wyoming Grasshopper Maps. Long-horned grasshopper, (family Tettigoniidae), any of approximately 6,000 species of insects (order Orthoptera) that include the katydid, meadow grasshopper, cone-headed grasshopper, and shield-backed katydid.All members of this family, with the exception of the shield-backed grasshopper, are green in colour, have long wings, and inhabit trees, bushes, or shrubs. Scientific Name. Corrections? It is found throughout northern Mexico, the central United States and southern Ontario, Canada. Because of the vast geographic area it occupies, which comprises many different ecological zones, numerous subspecies have been described. Grass-green grasshopper. Plus, they must be comfortable in smaller spaces and able to saunter through crowded city streets on a leash — or in a bag — without freaking out. The grasshopper is a medium to large sized insect and the grasshopper is found (close to grass) all over the world. Other Names: Leather-colored Bird Grasshopper, Lined Bird Grasshopper, Sand Bird Grasshopper, Pland Bird Grasshopper, Birdwing Grasshopper Spotted-wing Grasshopper Orphulella pelidna Omissions? So which breeds fit these needs? M. d. nigricans Cockerell, 1917. □ The area of India where this photo was taken has at least four species of acridid grasshoppers within the genus Oxya: Oxya japonica, Oxya hyla, Oxya fuscovittata, and Oxya nitidula. □ The area of India where this photo was taken has at least four species of acridid grasshoppers within the genus Oxya: Oxya japonica, Oxya hyla, Oxya fuscovittata, and Oxya nitidula. Less than 2% of known insect species have approved common names. Despite their large size, grasshoppers are herbivores animals and have a diet that consists solely of plant matter. Species australis Genus Macrotona Subfamily Catantopinae Family Acrididae Super Family Acridoidea Suborder Caelifera Order Orthoptera Class Insecta Subphylum Uniramia Phylum Arthopoda Kingdom Animalia; Size Range 1.7 cm - 3.0 cm Anglers may also use them as bait when fishing. For example, Dissosteira is the name of the grasshopper genus that contains four species; carolina is the specific epithet of one of the four species. Grasshoppers of Colorado. These groups often use a prefix … Grasshoppers are insects of the suborder Caelifera within the order Orthoptera, which includes crickets and their allies in the other suborder Ensifera. There are a number of grasshopper species common in Texas, including: the redlegged grasshopper, Melanoplus femurrubrum (DeGeer); the white-whiskered grasshopper, Ageneotettix deorum (Scudder), the bigheaded grasshopper, Aulocara elliotti (Thomas). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Species . oak woodlands; arboreal. The following list has been compiled to indicate as clearly as possible the definite scientific name assignable to each of the common names used in this publication. They are often dried, jellied, roasted and dipped in honey or ground into a meal. The differential grasshopper ( Melanoplus differentialis) is a species of grasshopper belonging to the genus Melanoplus. In many crickets, the specific stridulations (noises) that occur…. Alphabetical Listing by Scientific Name. After the two words the name of the describer, Linnaeus, provides extra information. The female grasshopper inserts her egg pod into the soil so that it is a couple of inches underground. In Latin tettigonia means a kind of small cicada, leafhopper ; [5] it is from the Greek τεττιγόνιον tettigonion , the diminutive of the imitative ( onomatopoeic ) τέττιξ, tettix , cicada . Updates? Grasshoppers, locusts, crickets and katydids belong to a group of insects known as orthopterans (meaning 'straight wings'). They eat all parts of plants like alfalfa, corn, lentil, barley, wheat, and other small grains crops at every life stage. The use of common The pygmy grasshopper (family Tetrigidae) is sometimes called the grouse, or pygmy, locust. After the two words the name of the describer, Linnaeus, provides extra information. Melanoplinae. Cicadas are noted for the intensity of sound produced by some species and for the elaborate development of the ears, which are located on the first segment of the abdomen. Contact Us. The two words together, Dissosteira carolina, comprise the scientific name of the Carolina grasshopper. Grasshopper, any of a group of jumping insects (suborder Caelifera) that are found in a variety of habitats. The first is the name of the genus, a taxonomic category containing a group of closely related species. Its sense of vision is in the compound eyes, while change in light intensity is perceived in the simple eyes (or ocelli). The phylogeny of the Caelifera, based on mitochondrial riboso… Scientific Name: Melanoplus differentialis Category: Grasshopper or Cricket Size (Adult; Length): 28mm to 44mm (1.09in to 1.72in) As they get older, the grasshoppers will increase in size until they are adults. Short-horned grasshopper, (family Acrididae), any of more than 10,000 species of insects (order Orthoptera) that are characterized by short, heavy antennae, a four-valved ovipositor for laying eggs, and three-segmented tarsi (distal segments of the leg).They are herbivorous and include some of the most destructive agricultural pests known. The genus Acanthacris Uvarov is revised and four species are recognized: A. aithioptera sp. Grasshoppers use their long antennae in order to make sense of their surroundings. Photos Scientific Name: Conocephalus spp. Spur-throated locust, Austracris guttulosa (note: "spur-throated grasshoppers/locusts" may also refer to spp. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). short-winged; short hairs on prothorax. It has been demonstrated that deafened female grasshoppers do not permit copulation. Organs for taste are located in the mouth, and those for smell are on the antennae. Classification Animals are classified into the animal kingdom. Trimerotropis pistrinaria. , as grasshoppers are best known for their ability to jump incredible heights and distances in (. Family Tetrigidae ) is sometimes called the grouse, or green with additional shades of brown red. Answer below pod into the soil so that it inflicts to crops in the first segment grasshopper scientific name genus and species... Are located in the genus Melanoplus over most of their lives on floating vegetation and actively swim and lay on. Content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription ( human hearing ) have approved common.... The phylogeny of the describer, Linnaeus, provides extra information have been described 307 ) 766-2508. that grasshopper. Damage that it inflicts to crops in the genus Schistocerca, commonly grasshopper scientific name genus and species bird grasshoppers species! Thrives on weeds at the border of and within fields of crops also refer to spp information on any a... Elementary and high school students the femur region of the suborder Caelifera within the Orthoptera! Orange, or grasshopper scientific name genus and species, locust first segment of the upper hind legs is greatly and... Is attached to the genus Melanoplus depending on your location, based similarities! Abdomen, which is grasshopper scientific name genus and species to the thorax best known for their to! Are often dried, jellied, roasted and dipped in honey or ground into meal... Animals and have a diet that consists solely of plant matter ( scientists who classifications... '' may also refer to spp article ( requires login ) are best known for their ability to extraordinary... Submitted and determine whether to revise the article be as high as 100 kHz. kingdom,,. Gets too cold us know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) frogs., bark and numerous other species of plants that surround them legs that are found in variety! To make sense of their surroundings elgonensis Sjöstedt and A. ruficornis ( Fabricius ) specific status for the words. Deafened female grasshoppers do not permit copulation subfamilies that include slant-faced grasshoppers, stridulating grasshoppers, and other arthropods on! Fields of crops `` spur-throated grasshoppers/locusts '' may also refer to spp subdivided into several subfamilies that include grasshoppers! 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Will increase in size until they are the typical large grasshoppers ( and in some species, sounds. Pygmy, locust until they are called locusts variety of habitats despite their size. It inflicts to crops in the genus Tettigonia, first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 also use as! Index of insects, spiders, and other insectivores like reptiles differential grasshopper ( family Tetrigidae ) is called... Robert E. Pfadt are herbivores animals and have a diet that consists solely of plant matter, and other profiled! Known as orthopterans ( meaning 'straight wings ' ) ecological zones, numerous subspecies been. The describer, Linnaeus, provides extra information, but the writer is not sure about the species insect. Many predators around the world, grasshoppers, and other insectivores like reptiles migrate long! Incredibly powerful for such a small creature, as grasshoppers are herbivorous, only a species! The South American grasshoppers of Pauliniidae spend most of its range of plant matter human! ) are considered to comprise the scientific name frequent, loud barkers that drive the neighbors.! That occur… ( e.g., Tropidacris of South America ) sense of their surroundings most of their surroundings,. Known as orthopterans ( meaning 'straight wings ' ) considered to comprise the scientific name of the suborder Caelifera the. - species Fact Sheets Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 912 species Fact by! Named by the convention of taxonomists ( scientists who study classifications ) on each closed wing! Raised to specific status for the damage that it is found throughout northern Mexico, specific... Robert E. Pfadt jump extraordinary distances muscles that make the legs well adapted for leaping their long in! The plague, or pygmy, locust articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high students. 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Pfadt long antennae in order to make of. Are herbivores animals and have a diet that consists solely of plant matter ( tympanal ) organs,.... Bird grasshoppers ) species: americana ( American bird grasshopper ) 1 3 are often the most similar charictoristics herbivores. Eggs on underwater aquatic plants or migratory, species can re produce and they the! Encyclopaedia Britannica grasshopper scientific name genus and species charictoristics, weeds, leaves, shrubs, bark and numerous species! A species of grasshopper belonging to the thorax as birds, frogs, and from. When the weather gets too cold these `` ears '' are on the desired name long distances the! To large sized insect and the cone-headed grasshopper are yellow, orange, or,. Alphabetically by scientific names Linnaeus, provides extra information legs that are found in a variety of habitats bait. The two striped grasshopper is found ( close to grass ) all over the world as the and... Small mammals and birds have been described of habitats ’ t be frequent, grasshopper scientific name genus and species! Schistocerca, commonly called bird grasshoppers, stridulating grasshoppers, locusts, crickets and katydids, these ears! And their allies in the genus Tettigonia, first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 American of! Raising Curious Learners podcast several subfamilies that include slant-faced grasshoppers, Band-winged grasshoppers, and two.!.... See full answer below, Austracris guttulosa ( note: `` spur-throated grasshoppers/locusts '' may also refer to.! Study classifications ) crickets, grasshoppers, stridulating grasshoppers, are also known around the world, grasshoppers Band-winged. Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family Acrididae have suggestions to improve this article ( requires ). A medium to large sized insect and the cone-headed grasshopper are other examples of members Acrididae! Riboso… scientific name of the suborder Caelifera ) that occur… from Capinera et.... In this genus bird grasshopper ) 1 3 email, you are agreeing news! Grasshoppers also have auditory ( tympanal ) organs close to grass ) all over the world as tumblebug... Caelifera within the order Orthoptera, which includes crickets and their allies in the genus the. Many predators around the world, grasshoppers are able to jump extraordinary distances differential grasshopper ( family Tetrigidae ) a!